Teotihuacán is an ancient city located 30 miles northeast of modern-day Mexico City and was settled as early as 400 B.C. and became the most powerful and influential city in the region by 400 A.D.
The main buildings are connected by a 130-foot-wide road named the Avenue of the Dead (“Calle de los Muertos”), oriented slightly east of true north, it points directly at the nearby sacred peak of Cerro Gordo an extinct volcano.
The origin and language of the Teotihuacanos are yet unknown. Their cultural influences spread throughout Mesoamerica, and the city carried on trade with distant regions. The priest-rulers who governed the city staged grand religious pageants and ceremonies that often involved human sacrifices.
The Pyramid of the Sun, a large pyramid in the ancient city of Teotihuacán, Mexico, that was built about 100 AD and is one of the largest structures of its type in the Western Hemisphere. The pyramid rises 216 feet above ground level, and it measures approximately 720 by 760 feet at its base.
It was constructed of about 1,000,000 cubic yards (765,000 cubic metres) of material, including hewed tezontle, a red coarse volcanic rock of the region. Little is known of the people who built Teotihuacán, and the purpose of the Pyramid of the Sun remains largely a matter of conjecture.
The Pyramid of the Sun’s size is such, that it immediately draws parallels to the Great Pyramid of Khufu in Egypt. It sits amidst a trio pyramids that appear identically aligned to those of the Giza Plateaux, both of which hold a resemblence to alignment of ancient stars. This has brought about some notable theories on ancient trans-oceanic contact and the plausible existence of an ancient super-race who spread knowledge of geometry and astrology across the globe.
Sometime around 550 A.D the pyramid was burned in a ritualistic "termination." It’s still unclear as to the reason or the culprit for the burning of the Pyramid of the Sun and many of the surrounding temples and monuments.
By the time the Aztecs found the city in the 1400s and named it Teotihuacan (meaning “the place where the gods were created”), the city had been abandoned for centuries.
The Aztecs believed there had been five Suns and that the Gods had to sacrifice themselves in various ways in order to create each one. The gruesome “Disc of Death” that was found in the Plaza of the Sun certainly alludes to these legends, with the skull symbolizing the death of the god who sacrificed himself, the radiant beams circling around his head to symbolize the sun.
Our knowledge of this location is that
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History.com Editors (2018). Teotihuacan. [online] HISTORY. Available at: https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-americas/teotihuacan.
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2018). Teotihuacán | Location, Sites, Culture, & History. In: Encyclopædia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/Teotihuacan.
The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2019). Pyramid of the Sun | Description & Facts. In: Encyclopædia Britannica. [online] Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/Pyramid-of-the-Sun.
Heyworth, R. (2018). Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Sun and The Orion Mystery. [online] Uncovered History. Available at: https://uncoveredhistory.com/mexico/teotihuacan/teotihuacan-pyramid-of-the-sun/.